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last updated: 2017-03

The design of both Xamarin.iOS and Xamarin.Mac calls for the use API to expose of the native .NET string type, string, for string manipulation in C# and other .NET programming languages, and to expose string as the data type exposed by the API instead of the NSString data type.

This means that developers should not have to keep strings that are intended to be used for calling into Xamarin.iOS & Xamarin.Mac API (Unified) in a special type (Foundation.NSString), they can keep using Mono's System.String for all of the operations, and whenever an API in Xamarin.iOS or Xamarin.Mac requires a string, our API binding takes care of marshaling the information.

For example, the Objective-C "text" property on a UILabel of type NSString, is declared like this:

@property(nonatomic, copy) NSString *text

This is exposed in Xamarin.iOS as:

class UILabel {
    public string Text { get; set; }
}

Behind the scenes, the implementation of this property marshals the C# string into an NSString and calls the objc_msgSend method in the same way that Objective-C would.

There are a handful of third-party Objective-C APIs that do not consume an NSString, but instead consume a C string (a "char"). In those cases, you can still use the C# string data type, but you must use the [PlainString] attribute to inform the binding generator that this string should not be marshaled as an NSString, but instead as a C string.

Exceptions to the Rule

In both Xamarin.iOS and Xamarin.Mac, we have made an exception to this rule. The decision between when we expose strings, and when we make an except and expose NSStrings, is made if the NSString method could be doing a pointer comparison instead of a content comparison.

This could happen when an Objective-C APIs uses a public NSString constant as a token that represents some action, instead of comparing the actual contents of the string.

In those cases, NSString APIs are exposed, and there are a minority of APIs that have this. You will also notice that NSString properties are exposed in some classes. Those NSString properties are exposed for items like notifications. Those are properties usually look like this:

class Foo {
     public NSString FooNotification { get; }
}

Notifications are keys that are used for the NSNotification class when you want to register for a particular event being broadcast by the runtime.

Keys usually look something like this:

class Foo {
     public NSString FooBarKey { get; }
}

Another place where NSStrings are exposed in the API is as tokens that are used as parameters to certain APIs in iOS or OS X that take NSDictionary objects as parameters. The dictionary typically contains NSString keys. Xamarin.iOS, by convention, names those static NSString properties by adding the “Key” name.

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